Vision is one of the five senses and is regarded by many as the most precious. Find out some of the most common eye problems, the causes, and how they can be treated.
1 Eye allergy
It is an inflammation of the eyes caused by a response of the immune system to a certain substance that our body recognizes as dangerous, an allergen. Its most frequent manifestation is seasonal allergic conjunctivitis: 20% of the population has allergic manifestations.
Causes: exposure to allergens that produce allergic reactions, the most common being pollen, fungi, animal hair, dust mites, food, etc.
Treatment: goes through preventing crises, improving environmental conditions and avoiding the allergen. To relieve symptoms, topical treatment (eye drops and ophthalmic ointments, anti-allergic, decongestant, and artificial tears) or systemic therapy may be used in more severe situations. It may be necessary to screen the allergen for skin or other tests at an allergy clinic.
This is the reduction of visual acuity (known as the “lazy eye”), uni- or bilateral, in the context of deficient development of binocular vision, associated with the presence of uncorrected refractive error, and/or strabismus due to poor ophthalmologic follow-up in childhood – 3% of children present amblyopia / strabismus.
Causes: anisometropia (refractive error is different in both eyes), aniseiconia (the image of an object observed by one eye is different from that observed by the other) and strabismus are responsible for most cases.
Treatment: monitoring of all children in the evaluation of the development of binocular vision from an early age is of paramount importance. The treatment goes through correction with glasses, penalties, orthoptics and strabismus surgery.
It occurs when the cornea presents a change in the axes of its curvature, being the objects focused on two different points of the retina, resulting in blurred vision (it is present in 20% of the myopes and hipermetropes).
Causes: may be related to genetic inheritance. It usually appears at birth or after eye trauma.
Treatment: Astigmatism can be corrected with the use of glasses with cylindrical lenses, contact lenses or refractive surgery.
It is a common and persistent inflammation of the eyelids, almost always with the chronic and cyclic character. It often affects people who have a tendency to have seborrheic skin (oily skin and dandruff) and produces ocular dryness – 7 out of 10 patients going to an ophthalmology clinic have eyelid problems.
Causes: infectious and non-infectious. The former is caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites and the latter are related to seborrhea, allergies, and toxic causes.
Treatment: hygiene measures (eyelid cleaning, local heat, soft massage of the base of the eyelashes) and, if necessary, use of antibiotic ointment and artificial tears.
It is characterized by inflammation of the conjunctiva (a transparent membrane that covers the eyeball and the inner part of the eyelid). This inflammation may have a recurrent or chronic acute character and the acute form is the most frequent and accompanied by tearing, itching, burning, and foreign body sensation. This disease of the eye may or may not be associated with mucopurulent secretion. It usually compromises both eyes, not necessarily at the same time. In conjunctivitis of infectious origin (predominantly viral cause), contagion is done by direct contact with the sick person or contaminated objects.
Causes: infectious by bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites and not infectious by allergic, mechanical, iatrogenic, occupational and other causes.
Treatment: Most conjunctivitis passes naturally, but to reduce symptoms and discomfort, cold saline and compresses may be used on the eyelids, frequent cleaning of the eyes, or lubricants and artificial tears. It is sometimes necessary, depending on the degree of severity, the use of antibiotics and/or anti-inflammatory eye drops and ointments.
It consists of an ocular deviation from loss of normal retinal correspondence of one eye, with loss of alignment. The deviation of the eyes can be constant or intermittent. The screening of strabismus should be done as early as possible, especially in children, due to the development of binocular vision, in order to prevent the onset of strabismic amblyopia.
Causes: can be caused by congenital or acquired causes.
Treatment: The treatment may be clinical, optic or surgical. It is recommended that you start the treatment of strabismus before the appearance of the first signs.
It is a type of ametropia that originates in an eyeball with short axial length and where the visual image formed is projected from behind the retina (occurs in 35% of people under 60 years of age).
Causes: In most cases, hyperopia has a congenital origin.
Treatment: correctable with glasses with positive lenses, contact lenses or laser surgery. Glens glasses would help.
It is a refractive error that affects vision at a distance. It is a type of ametropia that originates from an eyeball with a long axial length in which the visual image is not focused directly on the retina, but in front of it (occurs in about 20% of the population). It can have three forms: simple, average and pathological.
Causes: The pathological form may be associated with hereditary causes. The new epidemiological studies point to an increase in the incidence of myopia, possibly related to the accommodation induced by electronic devices and abusive use of central vision.
Treatment: Myopia is correctable with glasses with negative lenses, contact lenses or laser surgery.
9 Dry eye
It is an abnormal condition of lubrication of the surface of the eye that manifests itself when little tear fluid is produced or by the change in the composition of the tear film.
Causes: use of contact lenses, exposure to air-conditioned environments, wind, staying at high altitudes, use of cosmetics, tobacco smoke, air pollution, etc. There are certain medications that can cause reduction of lubrication in the eyes, such as antihistamines, antidepressants, diuretics, anesthetics, anticholinergics, and beta-blockers. It may also be associated with aging since at later ages there is a decrease in the production of tears.
Treatment: should be done not only for the patient’s own well-being but to avoid injury to the cornea. Specific eye drops (artificial tears) should be used and, in more severe cases, it is possible to use tear drainage occlusion, allowing them to remain in contact with the eye longer.
Subscribe to our newsletter
Subscribe to our newsletter to get occasional good offers.